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  • 전주콜걸➳예약금없는출장샵☈전주음경 마사지【전주마카오 마사지】╭(전주오목교 안마방)♫전주방콕 마사지 추천◐전주전화 tumblr╪전주신촌 안마방┺전주러시아 오피 후기☁전주스킨쉽 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    울산출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    전주콜걸┭예약♪전주음경 마사지【전주운서역 안마방】μ(전주타이마사지)⇪전주천안 마사지▥전주대딸⇈전주타이 마사지☇전주렉시벨 마사지┝전주종아리 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 속초마사지 만화 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    전주콜걸⇋24시출장샵×전주음경 마사지【전주다낭 붐붐 마사지】♂(전주안마방 백마)☺전주대구 전립선 마사지⇀전주광혜원 마사지φ전주모텔출장►전주안마방 한번싸면↽전주오피걸

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    전주콜걸♂출장부르는법§전주음경 마사지【전주태백 마사지】♐(전주서울 여인숙 가격)★전주안마방 지명녀⇛전주안마방 오일❁전주일산 모텔✑전주포항 북구 안마방→전주까치산 안마방

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 포항출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    전주콜걸╬예약금없는출장샵♚전주음경 마사지【전주홍대 안마방】┪(전주안마방 영상)☣전주구글 재펜☝전주안동 마사지✡전주텀블러 안마방▨전주전립선 마사지 후기☛전주의정부 여관

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 보성신흥 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    전주콜걸┰출장부르는법↹전주음경 마사지【전주홍진호 안마방】◆(전주안마방 의자)▶전주한국여자 마사지♘전주칠곡 안마방♦전주전북 안마방シ전주코스프레 안마방└전주서현역 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 전주출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    전주콜걸전주릉콜걸샵

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    전주콜걸┠24시출장샵♭전주음경 마사지【전주동래 안마방】웃(전주제주 연동 마사지)❀전주일본 마사지 야동↾전주하남 안마방↟전주양산 마사지☇전주서현 안마방↧전주video fc2 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 창원경찰 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    광주어깨 결림 마사지 phyangdeok.xyz 전라북도한국여자 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 부산출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    전주콜걸♥예약┈전주음경 마사지【전주파타야 마사지】0(전주새로운 안마방 아가씨)☪전주코코넛 오일 두피 마사지♠전주애인대행➥전주베트남 마사지 야동☌전주마사지 3만원フ전주오피걸

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 충청북도허리통증 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    전주콜걸⇙24시출장샵▥전주음경 마사지【전주피로회복 마사지】♢(전주일본 마사지 토렌트)▧전주포항 모텔 추천▨전주출장샵예약オ전주출장업계위☆전주남양주 안마방♐전주에가오 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 전주출장샵 .

    과천안마방 구분
    수원퇴폐 마사지 카지노사이트 전주외국인 안마방
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    전주콜걸►예약♞전주음경 마사지【전주스포츠마사지】┨(전주마사지 야동 토렌트)η전주안마방 2:1⇢전주합정 안마방⇪전주광주 대딸방┳전주마사지┽전주테크노폴리스 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 대전출장샵 .

    전주콜걸♪예약◥전주음경 마사지【전주여성 마사지】├(전주안마방 24시간)☪전주안마방 몰카 torrent⊙전주대구 모텔 아가씨╙전주영통 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ♈전주프라하 마사지유전주op

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 평택출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 군산안마방 아영이 토렌트 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    전주콜걸✤예약┩전주음경 마사지【전주구리 안마방】¤(전주삼산동 마사지)▼전주쥬니공주 안마방⇦전주텀블러 여관↴전주아침 안마방▦전주태국 아로마 마사지┊전주최음제 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    전주콜걸★예약금없는출장샵↔전주음경 마사지【전주50대 안마방】↮(전주서울 마사지 홈 서비스)モ전주여인숙 여자┘전주도쿄 마사지⇩전주목동역 마사지⇙전주건식 마사지▧전주신림동 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 전주포승읍 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 광주출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 대구출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 청주24시간 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 원주출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    전주콜걸☋출장부르는법◘전주음경 마사지【전주어깨 결림 마사지】↹(전주전립선 마사지 야동)╬ 전주한국인 마사지♩전주금천구 안마방ケ전주아줌마 마사지┶전주조건 출장╙전주콧대 마사지 효과

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 평택출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 온라인카지노 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 온라인카지노 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    전주콜걸⇀예약ღ전주음경 마사지【전주19금 마사지】╛(전주안마방 발기)→전주부산 서면 모텔✄전주스즈 하라 에미리 마사지☢전주전주 마사지 클럽█전주대구 서구 안마방⇩전주안마방 홈런

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    옥천월곶 마사지
    군산출장안마 김제광주 터미널 근처 모텔 gvya.xyz
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    전주콜걸☱예약금없는출장샵┦전주음경 마사지【전주광안리 안마방】♫(전주신림역 안마방)┡전주임파선 마사지❈전주러시아 안마방➨전주경주 마사지¤전주역삼 안마방↠전주안마방 대물

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.전주콜걸전주동래 마사지❣전주이진호 안마방○(전주일본 성인 마사지)전주강원랜드 근처 마사지✿전주안마방 무한샷✙전주안마방 얼마ヤ전주오일 마사지 av↷진주출장샵24시출장샵전주천안 조건 만남☎전주오일 마사지 야동═〖전주안마방 중독〗전주신포동 마사지○전주마사지 하드┘전주센슈얼 마사지⇂전주천안 출장☽전주콜걸평창안마방 일베전주휴게텔 안마방╳전주화성시 안마방╒【전주마사지 노모】전주출장 카톡⇎전주림프절 마사지“전주부산 마사지┩전주이태원 안마방☼전주크라운제이 안마방▶전주스웨 디시 마사지 란┗〖전주은평구 마사지〗전주피부 마사지☞전주여성전용 마사지┫전주안마방 물다이 몰카☏전주태국마사지 가격▽전주마사지 배우기↠전주역곡 안마방✓〔전주안마방 대기〕전주서울 출장♩전주불알 마사지❤전주대딸방ε전주태국 전립선 마사지∴전주마사지 질싸⇣전주진주시 안마방←〖전주콜걸〗전주상대보호구역☇전주귀 마사지┢전주대학동 마사지┯전주안동 마사지▄예약목포중국 마사지 종류24시출장샵전주토렌트 안마방┈전주오피걸✍【전주일본 보빨】전주등 마사지 방법❣전주전립선 마사지 썰☣전주출장몸매최고ト전주영등포구청 안마방➼전주콜걸전주콜걸카지노사이트전주안마방 입문전주안마방 의자전주동해 마사지전주이진호 안마방전주콜걸전주일본 av 마사지♥전주턱살 마사지╯‹전주용산 안마방›전주아침에 안마방↔전주가오슝 마사지¤전주고양이 변비 마사지╦전주방이동 안마방▨군산콜 걸

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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